Abrasion Test in textiles tests the fabric to determine how well it can withstand rough usages such as upholstery. In many different industries, abrasion testing is used as it is necessary if your company is offering a product warranty.
If the products undergo abrasion testing, it will be easier to understand when they need to be replaced. In the textile industry, abrasion testing holds an important place as it is one of the crucial steps a fabric has to go through before it can be used for manufacturing products.
In this article, we will go through all the details regarding the abrasion tests in textiles.
What is the Abrasion Test?
An abrasion test is putting stress on a material, primarily by rubbing at a specific speed and weight, to record at which point the material starts showing signs of distress. In the textile industry, this step is crucial as it ensures that the fabric will stand up to everything it will be put through. For example, a material that does not have a high abrasion test score can be used for rough use upholstery items as it will wear out within days.
Furniture companies mostly put their fabric through the abrasion test as it helps to determine which fabric to use for seating and bedding products. Some clothing companies also use this test for the high-point areas of clothing, such as the elbows and knees, to understand the longevity of their products. Other materials such as paper, rubber, metals, paints, plastics, and more can also be put through the abrasion test, even though the evaluation for them will be different. Abrasion testing is not one step, and it consists of multiple ways.
Fabric Abrasion Test Procedure
The fabric Abrasion Test procedure consists of tools and methods. Here is a brief discussion on how to carry out the method.
- Abrasion tester
- Electric balance
- Testing Atmosphere: Relative Humidity – around 65% & Temperature – approximately 27°C
- Present Atmosphere: Relative Humidity – about 68% & Temperature 0 around 29°C
- Choose a fabric of your choice.
- Cut the fabric into four small pieces which fit according to the measurement of the apparatus.
- Weight the samples’ initial weight and note it down on a chart.
- Under a specific load supplied in the instrument, place the samples at their respective place.
- Turn on the machine and start it.
- Observe the counter of the Abrasion no.
- Once the abrasion reaches 200, please take out the first sample and weigh it. Note the amount.
- Again, let the abrasion reach 300, and then take out the second sample to weigh it. Note it down as well.
- Again, weigh the third and fourth samples once the abrasion reaches 400 and then 500.
- Put the samples before and after abrasion weights together and determine their wear index.
To determine the results, you have to look at the weight loss of fabric. The more abrasion cycles, the more it will lose weight. However, other aspects must be considered when a fabric is used for manufacturing products. Fabric design and yarn quality are essential in determining if the fabric will lose more weight or less or at what speed. The abrasion test procedure helps the manufacturer understand when a product will need replacement.
Pilling Tester Machine
The abrasion test method consists of pilling tests for different textile fabrics. Carpets, non-woven fabric, cuffs, gloves, leather, painted surfaces, wood, socks, collars, high-pressure laminates, and more. Pilling tests for textile is when a fabric is determined by how resistant it is toward fuzzing or pilling. The pilling test is the same as the Martindale abrasion test. Still, instead, the pilling tester makes the test fabric rub against another fabric of the same material.
The pilling tester machine comes with a touchscreen controller, which makes the functions easier to use with one or two touches. The name of the pilling tester can also be the Martindale Abrasion cum pilling tester, as the two have similar features. For custom tests, there are multiple speeds to put the fabric through. A pilling tester machine can be found at the same place where an abrasion machine is found. Since both apparatuses carry out similar tasks, their price is also similar. Specific pressure is applied to the two fabric samples, which makes them rub against one another.
The abrasion test in textiles is one of the essential methods to carry out for fabric quality. Manufacturers must know the longevity and performance of the fabric material they work with. If they cannot provide proper information regarding the material to the customers, then they will not be able to grab the customers’ trust.
The abrasion test is carried out in factories to determine how long an upholstery or clothing item will last. It also helps to determine how each product should be taken care of. Overall, the abrasion test procedure is necessary.